Ceramic materials are inorganic and non-metallic, generally they are
defined as “inorganic solids”, they are one of the main materials classification, along with metals, polymers, and composites.
There are several types of ceramic materials, with technical ceramics (also known as advanced ceramics, fine ceramics, industrial ceramics or engineered ceramics) being the group with the high performing physical properties, electrical properties, chemical resistance and thermal properties, they are ceramic products made for technical application.
The high performance is due in part to their extremely high purity, technical ceramics have the ability to increase equipment service life, reduce overall maintenance costs, and improve performance and efficiency.
Technical ceramics are frequently being used to replace metals, polymers, and refractory materials in a wide variety of applications due to their notable high temperature capability, hardness, and electrical properties.
Usually they are shaped from the “green body” at room temperature and acquire their typical properties during a sintering process at high temperatures (generally, 1400℃ Min).
The use of technical ceramics in a large application field is justified by the diversity of properties offered by materials used for ceramic parts manufacturing.
Technical ceramics classified by chemical composition
Silicon carbide (SiC)
Silicon nitride (Si3N4)
Boron nitride (BN)
Every type of technical ceramic has specific thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties that can vary dramatically depending on the operating conditions & product design. In fact, even the manufacturing process of the exact same type of technical ceramic material can drastically change its properties. Fortunately, we’re here to help.
Different technical ceramics exhibit different mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties – this overview intends to provide a general idea of what technical ceramics can offer.
Advantages of Technical Ceramics
One of the most common properties of engineered ceramics is extreme hardness, this high hardness directly translates into excellent wear resistance, meaning that many technical ceramics have the ability to keep their precise, high-tolerance finish much longer than any other material.
High compressive strength
Technical ceramics have very high strength, however, this is only when compressed. For example, many technical ceramics can withstand extremely high loads ranging from 1000 to 4000 MPa.
Another common property of technical ceramics is their low density, ranging from 2 to 6 g/cm3. This is significantly lighter than stainless steel. Due to the high hardness and low weight, technical ceramics are increasingly being used in a variety of industries in applications where no other material can match their performance & long life.
Excellent physical performance at high temperature
Many technical ceramics are able to withstand incredibly high temperatures while still retaining their mechanical & electrical properties. This property makes ceramics appropriate for use in very high temperature applications like furnaces, jet engines, brake systems, and cutting tools.
Excellent electrical properties
Technical ceramics tend to be excellent electric insulators (high dielectric strength). Some ceramics have low electrical loss & high dielectric permittivity; these are typically used in electronic applications like capacitors and resonators.
Thermal conductivity or insulation
Different types of technical ceramic materials have wildly varying thermal properties, this property makes them suitable for a wide range of applications.
Chemically Inert & Corrosion Resistant
Technical Ceramics are very chemically stable and have low chemical solubility, making them highly resistant to corrosion. Metals and polymers cannot offer the same inertness or corrosion resistance, making ceramics a highly attractive option in many commercial and industrial applications, particularly when wear resistance is also needed.
Drawbacks of technical ceramics
Poor Shear & Tensile Strength, and technical ceramics is very brittle due to their low ductility. This means technical ceramics have very poor impact resistance.
The choice of ceramic materials depends on properties it brings to the final ceramic parts, for example:thermal properties,mechanical properties, electric properties, chemical stability,density, hardness, etc.
Technical ceramics classified by application
High-performance ceramics are defined as “highly developed, high-performance applicable ceramic material, which is mainly non-metallic and inorganic, and has certain functional properties.”
The term is seen as a differentiation to traditional clay based ceramic that includes tableware, sanitary ceramic tiles and bricks and covers all technical ceramics.
Functional ceramics, structure ceramics and electro-ceramics all can be called high-performance ceramics.
Ceramics components which fulfill an electrical, magnetic, di-electrical, optical etc.
Structural ceramics (industrial ceramics, engineering ceramics)
Components which are subjected mainly to mechanical loads (tensile and pressure strain, bending moments etc.) fall under the category structural ceramic. Sometimes the terms industrial or engineering ceramics are also used for these products.
Electrical ceramics are ceramics materials that are applied because of their specific electric or electronic characteristics.
Electrical engineering applications make use primarily of the excellent insulating characteristics and mechanical strength. The electronics industry also takes advantage of characteristics such as ferro-electric behaviour, semi-conductivity, non-linear resistance, ionic conduction, and superconductivity.
Cutting tool ceramics are high-performance ceramics that are applied in machining processes (lathe bits, drilling, milling) due to their excellent wear and high-temperature resistance.
Lithaiwa is a supplier of technical ceramic parts.
Lithaiwa is supplying a wide range of technical ceramic materials , including alumina ceramics, zirconia ceramics and steatite ceramics.
All ceramic materials are available in a variety of forms from chip, disc, ring, sheets,tubes, rods to finished components.
We also make custom ceramic parts as custom specifications.